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Drinking water supplies are prone to contamination with sewage and excreted matter which can cause outbreaks of intestinal infections such as typhoid fever.

Probiotic bacteria are characterised as beneficial microorganisms that exert effects on promoting health in various systems of the body. Prebiotics are known as non-digestible food components that increase the growth and health effects of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract.

Moulds are categorised as fungi that are in the form of multi-cellular filaments, namely hyphae. They are responsible for biodegradation in foods by breaking down the complex organic matter into simpler substances; i.e. undesirable food spoilage.

A number of methods can be used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in meat. These include packaging such as modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging, irradiation, etc. However these methods may encourage the growth of other types of micro-organisms such as Lactic acid bacteria, yeast, etc.

During the slaughtering process of cattle and poultry some species of micro-organisms are able to develop and colonise under certain conditions. The growth develops when specific type / amount of essential nutrients are available mainly on the surface of the meat products.

It is essential to control the quality and safety of fresh meat / meat products to ensure meeting both legal regulations and consumer demands. HACCP and QM are two typical controlling procedure commonly implemented in food industry for manufacturing meat. ...

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