Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a detailed food safety procedure that is based on assessing and controlling of chemical, microbiological and physical hazards. The HACCP plan is implemented during the entire steps of the food preparation and production including the raw material receiving, processing and dispatch.
The main objective is to detect and prevent the potential food safety hazards rather than just auditing of the final product/products. The Critical Control Points (CCPs) are basically carried out to decrease / eliminate the risk of the identified hazards. It is legally required to carry out the HACCP plan during the production of Juice and seafood. This has been regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
The following example outlines the HACCP procedure implemented for the production of ready to eat pasta with turkey ham, vegetables and low fat soft cheese sauce:
|STEP||HAZARD||CONTROL MEASURES||MONITORING PROCEDURES|
|Receiving raw materials |
- Dry ingredients
dry pasta, dry coriander, dry cinnamon, dry dill, dry saffron, ground pepper and salt
Absorption of water,
|Pest control contract.|
Appropriate storage (at ambient temperature), check use by dates
Supplier specification, use reputable suppliers, Spice extract can be substituted with dried spices.
|Inspect delivery vehicle, drivers.|
Visual inspection (e.g. monitoring labels of incoming foods to ensure that they come from a reputable source and are according to specification.
- Refrigerating/fresh ingredients:
Vegetables & herbs - fresh basil, parsley, onion, green peas and mushrooms.
High risk foods - milk, soft cheese and turkey ham.
|Presence of Cl. botulinum.|
Bacterial spoilage (mainly psychrophilic type as they naturally present in soil).
Abrasion / bruising will allow the spores to enter the moist inner tissues (leading to germination and cause spoilage).
Presence of stones, grit, stalks, caterpillars or other insects.
|Inspection of vegetables and herbs for microbial spoilage / bruising.|
Inspection, cleaning and thoroughly washing (preferably with chlorinated water) should be carried out.
|Supervise loading / unloading procedures.|
Visual / sensory inspection of raw materials e.g. detection of off-odours.
- Ambient storage for spices and herbs.
Under condition of high relative humidity, dried foods absorb water leading to spoilage as a result of mould growth.
Product exposed to micro-organisms, mould, yeast due to e.g. inadequate packaging i.e. burst, breakage.
|Use pest control system, storage under conditions which do not expose them to risk of contamination (i.e. cool, dry storage condition).|
Cool, dry, well ventilated storage is preferred.
Ensure packaging is intact, package seal is not compromised.
|Visual inspection on the quality and state of the raw materials.|
Measure air in unit and temperature of the food.
Inspect cleaning schedule records & observe practice.
Ensure stock is rotated.
- Refrigeration storage for fresh vegetables, herbs and high risk foods
|Deviation of unit temperature can encourage the growth of Micro-organisms e.g. pseudomonas.|
Cross contamination from other stored products.
Out of date.
|Ensure the storage temperature is within 1- 5°C. Minimise temperature fluctuation by reducing opening/ closing the storage door.|
Fresh vegetables & herbs must be stored separated from other kind of raw materials (such as meat, poultry).
Stock control FIFO (first in first out)
|Supervise the storage practices.|
Visual inspection on packages.
Check records of temperature and humidity in storage.
| Preparation & Processing of ingredients |
| - Washing |
|Enteric pathogens in the water increase microbial load of the product. Presence of foreign objects (grits, stones, etc.). in mushroom. Potential contamination with sanitising chemical residue during washing.|
|Only potable water should be used (obtained from water main supply)|
|Visual inspection of the water.|
Microbiological analysis of water main periodically.
If chlorine or a similar microbicide is not to be added, water should be tested for freedom from coliforms.
|- Peeling |
|Cross contamination by infected food handlers (staph. lococcus organism is the most common type).|
Cross contamination from unhygienic equipment, worktop, utensils, chopping boards, etc.
Poor personal hygiene, poor hygiene procedure.
|All cuts must be completely covered by a suitable waterproof dressing, reporting of sickness and diarrhoea, coughs, colds, eye and ear infections is necessary.|
Colour coding of equipment is commonly adapted by food handlers to ensure the separation of utensils.
Good personal hygiene is essential. Protective clothing must be worn to cover all outdoor wear and also hair
|Supervise the practices.|
Inspect cleaning schedules and monitor cleaning procedures.
|- Weighing up||Cross contamination of raw materials due to unhygienic practice/ utensils.|
|Hygienic performance, clean equipment/ utensils. Foods should be handled as little as possible.|
Minimum temperature of 65°C is required (using proper-working temperature probes / temperature gauges / monitors, ect).
|Monitor the practices specified in the control measure category.|
Supervise the practices.
Check the temperature records.
|The product is to be cooked for making it palatable and safe for immediate consumption |
|Ineffective heating process due to wrong combination of time and temperature.|
Toxins, spores may survive during cooking.
A few psychrotrophic organisms (e.g. lactobacilli) can survive a process to 65°C and cause spoilage during chill storage.
|Ensure proper time/temperature (above 65ºC to maximum 82°|
C is required)
|All temperature record charts are inspected regularly.|
For each product batch, the temperature recorded on the control chart must correspond to the temperature indicated on the master temperature measuring instrument.[Copyright note: http://www.labreports.info]
|Portioning, Filling & Packaging |
|Product is aseptically weighed (300g serving) and modified atmosphere packaged |
|Introduction of pathogens due to:|
Insufficient cooking temperature. Potential contamination from environment or as a result of improper handling.
|Correct gas flushing (combination of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide).|
Ensuring hygienic practice, ensuring required time and temperature has been achieved prior to filling.
Correctly operating metal detector with required sensitivity.
|Monitor all procedures.|
The temperature is measured before filling.
Inspect cleaning schedules.
Packaging area and the hygienic practices are observed.
|Labelling||Incorrect consumer instruction / nutrition information.|
Incorrect use by date.
Misleading / insufficient information.
|Ensure labelling information meets all legal requirements.|
(e.g. Instruction for storage; “keep refrigerated, once opened consume within 3 days”).
Usage instruction / legally permitted composition values must be correctly declared.
|Monitor the practices.|
Inspect cleaning schedules.
|Finished product (chilling) storage |
|Inappropriate storage conditions may result in encouraging the growth / entry of micro-organisms.|
leaking / leaching of the package seals due to accidental / bad handling.
|Adequate storage condition (proper ventilation / humidity and temperature); |
Temperature between 1 & 5°C is adequate.
The outgrowth of germinated bacterial spores is inhibited at storage temperatures below 5°C.
Care must be taken during handling to avoid/ minimise breakage, damage to the package.
|Storage area is measured.|
|Dispatch & Transport|
|Growth of micro-organisms due to abuse / bad handling during transport / distribution e.g. package damaging / leakage. |
|Ensure good handling practice.|
Appropriate storage condition in transit.
|Storage temperature of establishment and delivery vehicle is regularly checked.|
The loading of storage cabinets is inspected.
Visual inspection of the cleanliness and hygiene.
| Retail |
|Growth of micro-organisms in consequence of abuse i.e. bad handling, bad storage.|
|Provide appropriate instructions about storage conditions to retailer i.e. refrigeration storage (perishable food)/ display by (date printed on the pack.)|
|Date / batch and code.|
|Consumer instructions |
|Inappropriate storage supporting micro-organism growth.|
Once opened liable to microbial spoilage / pathogens.
Under heating the product can encourage bacterial growth / spore germination.
|Ensure instructions for storage is written on the package i.e. store in refrigerator / use by (printed on the pack).|
Instructions such as: once opened keep refrigerated and consume within 3 days.
Usage/ heating instruction (microwave power and time) should be clearly specified.
|Consumer to check storage requirements i.e. air, temperature, humidity of storage unit (refrigerator).|
Check use by date.
| CCP PROCESS STEP|
|CCPs||CRITICAL LIMIT |
|CORRECTIVE ACTION |
|Receiving raw materials|
|Within microbiological specifications|
|Reject if outside the microbiological specification. Inform suppliers, if still unsuitable look elsewhere.|
|Receiver’s recordings are to be verified by the storage manager. Supplier specification is to be checked by operation manager.|
Microbiological sampling and auditing the results
|Storage of dry ingredients|
|Cool, dry, well-ventilated ambient environment.|
|Inform engineer, reject if outside the limit.|
Correct storage condition.
|Microbiologically examination of random samples of ingredients and audit the results. Auditing and report of supplier specifications periodically.|
|Storage of fresh ingredients (refrigeration)|
|Correct refrigerated temperature (between 1 and 5°C).|
Correct humidity, air condition.
|Alert engineers. Reject if outside the limit. |
QC operator should dispose/ hold the product dependent on time / temperature of deviation.
|QC/Operation manager must ensure proper operation of the storage unit. |
|Refer to standards for each ingredient but ensure hygienic practice.|
Perishable foods (fresh vegetables, ham, and cheese) should not be kept at room temperature longer than 60min.
|Dispose of food if the food is in poor condition.|
Ensure staffs are trained adequately.
|Microbiologically assess random samples & audit the results.|
Microbial testing to determine the source and type of contamination. Random samples (record results and audit).
|Core temperature above >65ºC. Time and temperature sufficient (especially to obtain > 7 log reduction in salmonella). |
|Extend cooking time until temperature achieved.|
QC manager will reject or hold all affected product(s).
|Audit and record all time / temperature combinations.|
Microbial testing to determine the source of contamination (e.g. standard plate count) if shelf life is inadequate.
Use biotrace swabbing to ensure / determine sanitation of equipment.
|portioning, filling and packaging|
|No hazardous pathogens (esp. listeria monocytogenes) on product contact surfaces|
No foreign body (e.g. plastic, paper, metal fragments )
|Audit and record temperature of filling portions. Audit and record metal detecting operation.|
Rejected products (contaminated with metals) are informed to the QC operator.
QC operator investigates the source of contamination.
|Finished product(chilling) storage|
|Finished product storage area will not exceed 5°C.|
|If a deviation from a critical limit occurs, the following are implemented:|
Cause of the exceeded temperature will be identified and eliminated.
The CCP should be monitored frequently (every hour).
Identified cause of deviation (e.g. equipment failure) is examined to prevent it from reoccurring.
|QC operator checks all monitoring thermometers and verify activities for correctness and calibrate the accuracy if required.|
QC operator observes maintenance personnel check finished product storage area on a regular basis.
|Product (perishable food) stored in refrigerator.|
Use by date – 1month shelf life with intact package.
|Retailer to remove and discard from display if out of date.|
Adjust storage conditions.
|Place company address on the label for the purpose of complaints /comments etc.|
|Refrigeration store between 1- 5°C.|
Once opened store in refrigerator, consume within 3 days.
|Adjust temperature of the refrigerator.|
Discard if the product is out of date.
|Place company’s address/ contact number / website address for any complaint/ comment / information.|
Assess and review satisfactory / dissatisfactory comments.