Lipids are of great importance in human diet. They provide essential fatty acids, supply energy, and assist in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Proportional consumption of dietary fats and oils helps maintain healthier mechanism in the body.
Aflatoxins refer to the naturally occurring mycotoxins. They are responsible for specific disorders in animals and humans including toxicity, cancers and fetal abnormalities.
The presence of antioxidants in foods facilitates improving the organoleptic characteristics and extending the shelf-life of the foods. Lipid oxidation as one of the major deteriorating factors can be inhibited by the activities of antioxidants in foods.
Fats and oils which are in the category of lipids contain coarsely hydrophobic molecules (repellent from the water). The formation of fats and oils is based on the reaction of three ester molecules (reactants of alcohol and acid) known as triglyceride which are hydrolysed with water to produce fatty acids and glycerol.
Organoleptic quality and nutritional value of fruits and vegetables are characterised by some specific features. These include colour, texture, chemical components and antioxidant properties that are highly affected during the processing.
Evaluation of sodium chloride content of the food products is important to ensure that the requirements of food quality and food safety are met. Sodium chloride content is usually determined by the essay of total chloride concentration in the foods.
Sugar substitute is either natural or synthetic. Synthetic sugar substitute is usually known as artificial sweetener. It provides insignificant calorie after the ingestion and due to its intense sweet flavour, only a small fraction is sufficient to be used for the sweetening purpose.
Moisture content of food products is essential to be scientifically determined for some analytical purposes comprising Food quality , Microbial durability, Food legislation, Food processing .Chemical evaluation of water in food products involves numerous analytical methods among which distillation and oven drying procedures are basically discussed in this report.
Antimicrobial peptides or "host defense peptides" have the potential to protect the body against some harmful microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. Researchers have been recently interested in focusing on the activity of antimicrobial peptides released from food sources.
Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the main contributing factors to developing cardiovascular disease. The condition of blood pressure is determined by various biochemical mechanisms in the body. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) as a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase present in the body tissues can increase blood pressure by inducing constriction in the blood vessels.
Bioactive peptides from proteins have been found in a range of food products such as milk and muscle sources (fish, beef, pork and chicken). Bioactive peptides from food proteins can offer some protective and health benefits in the body.